Olive polyphenols

Alivyum® contains an optimal combination of polyphenols which are found in a natural way in olives and extra virgin olive oil, among which are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol oleuropein, verbascosides, and others in an adequate ratio to obtain a higher activity and efficacy.

Polyphenols are natural bioactive compounds, naturally present in fruit, vegetables and other plants, which are known by their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, among others.

Polyphenols have awakened great interest from a nutritional point of view, because of their capacity not only related to health condition, but also to the prevention of diseases. In recent years they have been accredited with important benefits against the development of certain diseases (cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases).

Olive polyphenols are known as potent antioxidants, capable of reducing and depressing inflammation, improving skin disorders like dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis, without side effects.

Virgin olive oil is formed by two big groups of compounds, the saponifiable fraction, known by the fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction or minor components, among which are polyphenols, vitamin E, triterpenes and others. Recent scientific evidences show that minor components in virgin olive oil have more health benefits that what first thought.

Virgin olive oil is a source of at least thirty phenolic compounds. The main ones are hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and tyrosol. They are potent antioxidants as free radical scavengers.

Studies show that people suffering from mild to moderate psoriasis have a higher lipid peroxidation level and lower blood glutathione and beta-carotene levels than patients without the disease.

Antioxidants and lipid peroxidation status in the blood of patients with psoriasis (I~brahim Ko¨kc¸ama et al. 1999)

The olive aqueous fraction coming from olive oil extraction is the richest source of those phenolic compounds.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the daily intake of olive oil polyphenols to protect blood lipids from oxidative damage, due to its high anti-oxidant capacity.

Polyphenols anti-inflammatory activity

Olive oil polyphenols studies have been developed in numerous countries and by numerous scientists.

Dr. Francesco Visioli has been the scientist with the highest number of published studies about olive polyphenols, more than 70, half of which have been about olive oil polyphenols. His team was the one which found out the biological and pharmacological properties of olive oil polyphenols.

Dr. Visioli is Doctor in Cell and Molecular Biotechnology applied to Medicine by the University of Milan. He has been Professor of Physiopathology at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris and of Pharmacological Sciences at University of Milan.

Below we mention some of the publications in which Dr. Visioli collaborates and in which the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of olive polyphenols is shown:

  • Waste waters from olive oil production are rich in natural antioxidants. Experientia 51: 32–34. (1995)
  • Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents, Atherosclerosis 117 25–32 (1995)
  • Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247: 60–64 (1998)
  • Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Life Sci 62: 541–546 (1998)
  • Olive oil phenols and their potential effects on human health, J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 4292–4296 (1998)
  • Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans. FEBS Lett 2000;468(2–3):159–60 (2000)
  • Olive phenol hydroxytyrosol prevents passive smoking induced oxidative stress. Circulation 102: 2169–2171 (2000)
  • Antiatherogenic components of olive oil. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 3: 64–67 (2001)
  • Hydroxytyrosol, as a component of olive mill waste water, is dose-dependently absorbed and increases the antioxidant capacity of rat plasma. Free Radic Res; 34: 301–305 (2001)
  • Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil. Med. Res. Rev. 22: 65–75 (2002)
  • Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2002; 42: 209–221 (2002)
  • Hydroxytyrosol excretion differs between rats and humans and depends on the vehicle of administration. J Nutr;133(8):2612–5 (2003)
  • Daily consumption of a high-phenol extra virgin olive oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 95:742–751 (2006)
  • Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities. Curr Pharm Des;17 786-804. [21443485] [doi.org/10.21 74/138161211795428885] (2011)

Como ejemplos de estudios realizados sobre el aceite de oliva virgen, los polifenoles de la aceituna y aceite de oliva y su actividad anti-inflamatoria podemos citar:

  • “Phenolic compounds extracted from olive oil prevent oxidation of low density lipoproteins and inhibit platelet function and platelet and leukocytes eicosanoid production in vitro. In Oxidative Processes and Antioxidants, Paoletti R, Samuelsson B, Catapano AL, Poli A, Rinetti M (eds). Raven Press: New York, 199–206 (1994)
  • Petroni, A., Blasevich, M., Salami, M., Servili, M., Montedoro, G. F. & Galli, C. (1994) A phenolic antioxidant extracted from olive oil inhibits platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in vitro. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 75: 169–172.
  • Petroni A, Blasevich M, Salami M, Papini N, Montedoro GF, Galli C.Inhibition of platelet-aggregation and eicosanoid production by phenolic components of olive oil. Thromb Res 1995;78:151– 60.
  • Petroni A, Blasevich M, Papini N, Salami M, Sala A, Galli C. Inhibition of leukocyte leukotriene B-4 production by an olive oil-derived phenol identified by mass-spectrometry. Thromb Res 1997;87:315–22.
  • de la Puerta R, Gutierrez VR, Hoult JRS. Inhibition of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase by phenolics from virgin olive oil. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;57:445–9.
  • de la Puerta R, Martinez-Dominguez E, Ruiz-Gutierrez V. Effect of minor components of virgin olive oil on topical anti-inflammatory assays. Z Naturforsch C 2000;55:814-9. [110 98836]
  • Martínez-Domínguez E, de la Puerta R, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V (2001) Protective effects upon experimental inflammation models of a polyphenol-supplemented virgin olive oil diet. Inflamm Res 50:102–106
  • Tuck KL, Hayball PJ. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:636–44.
  • Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA, Massaro M, Scoditti E, Storelli C, et al. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation—antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:622–9.
  • Differential anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil identified in human whole blood cultures Elizabeth A. Miles, Ph.D et al. 2004
  • Maria Chiara Maiuri, Daniela De Stefano, Paola Di Meglio, Carlo Irace, Maria Savarese,
  • Raffaele Sacchi, Maria Pia Cinelli, Rosa Carnuccio: Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from virgin olive oil, prevents macrophage activation (2005)
  • Beauchamp GK, Keast RS, Morel D, Lin J, Pika J, Han Q, et al. Phytochemistry:
  • ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 2005;437(7055):45–6.
  • Maiuri MC, De Stefano D, Di Meglio P, Irace C, Savarese M, Sacchi R, et al.
  • Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from virgin olive oil, prevents macrophage activation. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2005;371(6):457–65.
  • Miles EA, Zoubouli P, and Calder PC (2005) Differential anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil identified in human whole blood cultures. Nutrition 21:389–394.
  • Bitler et al. Hydrolyzed Olive Vegetation Water in Mice Has Anti-Inflammatory Activity (2005)
  • Puel C, Mathey J, Agalias A, Kati-Coulibaly S, Mardon J, Obled C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Horcajada MN, Skaltsounis AL, Coxam V. Dose-response study of effect of oleuropein, an olive oil polyphenol, in an ovariectomy/inflammation experimental model of bone loss in the rat. Clin Nutr 2006;25:859-68. [1674 0345] [doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2006. 03.009]
  • Corona G, Deiana M, Incani A, Vauzour D, Dessì MA, Spencer JP. Inhibition of p38/CREB phosphorylation and COX-2 expression by olive oil polyphenols underlies their anti-proliferative effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007;362(3):606–11.
  • Bogani P, Galli C, Villa M, Visioli F. Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis 2007;190(1):181–6.
  • Fitó M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, Martí J, Muñoz D, Schröder H, et al. SOLOS
  • Investigators. Anti-inflammatory effect of virgin olive oil in stable coronary disease patients: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62(4):570–4.
  • Zhang X, Cao J, Zhong L. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in human monocytic cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2009;379(6):581–6.
  • Effects of Hydroxytyrosol-20 on Carrageenan induced Acute Inflammation and Hyperalgesia in Rats Dezheng Gong et al. 2009
  • Lucas L, Russell A, Keast R. Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal. Curr Pharm Des 2011;17(8):754–68.
  • Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Sánchez de Ibargüen L, Cárdeno A, Alarcón de la Lastra C. Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model. Eur J Nutr 2011;51:497–506.
  • Patrizia Rosignoli et al. Effect of olive oil phenols on the production of inflammatory mediators in freshly isolated human monocytes (2012)
  • Khalatbary et al Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Oleuropein in Experimental Rat Spinal Cord Trauma (2012)
  • Ana Cardeno et al. Unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil inhibits the inflammatory response in LPS-activated murine macrophages (2013)

Hydroxytyrosol prevented the iNOS and COX-2 increase on incubated cells with lipopolisacarids (LPS) (“Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from virgin olive oil, prevents macrophage activation”. Maiuri MC et al. 2005)).

An hydroxytyrosol enriched extract diminished the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β y TNF-α; (“Effects of hydroxytyrosol-20 on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats”. Gong D. et al. 2009).

Hydroxytyrosol inhibited with a dose dependent the production of leukotriens B4 (LTB4); (“Inhibition of leukocyte leukotriene B4 production by an olive oil derived phenol identified by mass-spectrometry”. Petroni et al. 1997).

Hydroxytyrosol diminished the cytokines secretion (IL- 1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α), and kemokines (CXCL10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1); (“Hydroxytyrosol is the major anti-inflammatory compound in aqueous olive extracts and impairs cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages”. Richard N. et al. 2011)

Hydroxytyrosol reduced dramatically the COX-2 expression; (“Effect of olive oil phenols on the production of inflammatory mediators in freshly isolated human monocytes”; Rosignolia et al. (2013).

Hydroxytyrosol suppressed significantly the TNF-α, iNOS, y COX-2 transcription in a doe dependent way; (“Hydroxytyrosol inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in human monocytic cells”. Zhang X. et al. 2009).


Balance in your skin

Alyvium® is a natural product, clinically tested, which contains an studied and optimized combination of polyphenols and olive flavonoids, with an important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. A natural alternative that helps to mitigate the symptoms in the skin as a result of disorders of the immune system.